All Formosan languages are coming to Glossika's online platform soon. We hope to enable the access to these rich and valuable languages to the whole world, assisting and ensuring their survival for generations to come.
The head of our production team A-Long (himself an Amis aborigine and featured in the cover photo of Glossika's homepage) will be overseeing the development and audio production aspect of this project in 2018. Michael and a group of linguists are working on procuring the source materials for the project.
This is made possible with Glossika's new management system coming online in November 2017. This enables the expansion of the database and creation of many new tools to allow access to a much wider scale of languages. If you would like to get languages added to Glossika, please sign up on Glossika Associates Platform and get involved.
[Photo: Rukai girls, credit: 康執中]
Formosan Language Materials
Each language has a wealth of stories and legends in addition to conversational dialogues. Upon release, Glossika's algorithms can sort the content by complexity providing an interesting mix of materials.
There is a good wealth of beginner dialogue materials which cover basic and conversational sentences, travel sentences, and short stories available mostly in Chinese translation, some in English translation (translations of which we will continue to add to the database).
The goal with such things as stories, is to add new Topics (Categories) to the customized list on the website. From here, you can practice all the sentences within a given story in order of difficulty, then go back and re-read the story from beginning to end with a high level of understanding and the ability to re-tell the story yourself. In a broader sense, Glossika is also working towards multimedia formats so that we can do the same with scripted videos and movies.
Material is greatly limited for Siraya, Pazeh, and Kaxabu (the latter is a dialect of Pazeh). For Babuza, the only surviving materials are wordlists. The amount of material for both Siraya and Kaxabu should grow as time goes on. The government's recognition of each tribe has gone a long way to ensuring the survival of the languages. One of the requirements for getting recognition is a full fledged dictionary of at least 2500 roots. The Kaxabu community (quite unknown even in Taiwan) has already produced an initial Kaxabu dictionary (draft) and may soon be able to get recognized if they expand on it, thereby bringing Pazeh back from the dead. It's worthy to note that since Kaxabu is a spoken dialect of Pazeh, Pazeh isn't really dead as a language -- the two appear to be mutually intelligible and have a set of regular sound correspondences.
All 1200 Austronesian languages descend from Formosan
Languages as far away as Malagasy (Madagascar), Hawai`i, Maori (New Zealand), and Rapa Nui (Easter Island) are descended or related to the Formosan languages. Well-known languages such as Malay, Indonesian, Tagalog (Filipino) are closely related. Seafarers are believed to have set sail from Taiwan around 3000 years ago settling the rest of the Pacific islands in successive waves of migration computed by phylogenetic methods.
Austronesian grammar is quite special. Instead of having subjects and objects (accusative alignment), these languages have what is known as "Austronesian alignment" and further proves that languages have roles at their deepest structure rather than subjects and objects. Austronesian alignment simply means that every noun in a sentence is given a Focus Role which include Agents, Patients, Locatives, Instruments, Benefactives, Reasons, Circumstantials, etc. You could say that Austronesian alignment is the same as "Role and Reference Grammar" one of the best and hottest competing grammars (against Chomsky's theories) in Linguistics right now.
Learning a Formosan Language is a Great Investment
Learning any of the Formosan languages forces you to think in terms of Roles when you speak. This is great training for any linguist or polyglot who wants to expand his repertoire and understanding of how humans perceive and describe the world.
In fact, you'll even learn how to use ergativity with Formosan languages and you'll gain a better understanding of the faulty construct of subjects and objects.
Most Austronesian languages are Verb initial (VSO, or should we say VAP - Verb Agent Patient!). Semantically, the languages have highly productive grammars and great for switching word classes with various affixes. One of the best things you'll learn right away is how to make an active verb using m- prefixes and causative verbs with p- prefixes (the difference betweeen matay "die" and patay "kill").
Though not many people actually speak these languages, it's like learning a secret language that only you and a few others know. But with more people gaining access, perhaps the languages will be better and more widely understood. It is our hope that a good deal of world literature becomes available in these languages in the near future and that young generations start producing literature and new stories in these languages.
Are Formosan Languages Hard?
Aside from thinking in terms of Roles, they are not hard. Verbs do not conjugate, and you only need to add endings to words to change them to completed actions (similar to past tense). If you've ever heard someone say that Indonesian is easy to learn, then Formosan languages are about the same level of difficulty.
What's hard about them might be their sound systems, and some are easier than others. All of the Formosan languages are written as if they were IPA, which is really cool if you're a linguist. The letter q is a deep throat k. Vowels have been encoded into a phonemic matrix, so although most languages only have a i u in writing, they do actually have more vowels that show up in speech.
Did you know You can watch the news in almost any of the Formosan languages on YouTube. This news channel contains Chinese and various Formosan languages (weekly) going back several years. Unfortunately Thao is not available with a few other small languages. You should be able to find dozens if not hundreds of videos recorded in each of these languages going back several years.
Languages like Thao (Thaw) are easy, and yes, that's the same "th" sound in English in its name. But it also has the "lh" sound like "ll" of Welsh which can be hard at first: try saying 'snake' qlhoran. Thao happens to be my strongest Formosan language, and is the 2nd oldest Austronesian language (~5000-6000 years old). Unfortunately, many of its elder native speakers have passed away in the last couple years and the language is on its last legs if we don't get younger people to speak and use it more. Other than a couple native speakers left, it has a community of a few dozen people who can still passively understand the language. There's at least one shopkeeper on the busy tourist street (with accompanying pug at the doorway) who can tell you stories all day in Thao. Just say: "Maqétan íhu! Mafáðaq íhu maʃθáw a kóngko?" By the way, "Thao" means man.
Did you know that every word in some dialects of Seediq can only have a maximum of two vowels no matter how many prefixes are added? (A word starting with em- doesn't count as a separate vowel.) The double -ee- in "Seediq" just indicates a glottal stop before the -e-. Other than lots of consonant clusters at the beginning of words, Seediq (and Truku and Taroko) is a very easy language to pronounce and learn. And the community uses the language vigorously and happy to help others speak. "Seediq" means man.
I have a Bible in the Truku language. Randomly opening to a verse, Ezekiel 36:9 starts with the word "Mpsbrinah ...", a word with 5 consonants in a row. The third sentence in Obadiah 1:12 reads "Jiyax pqrqilan dha o iya ptghlisi." Despite these clusters, Truku looks like a very regular and fun language to learn.
You can tell Taroko and Truku apart only by their stress. The language with penultimate stress will allow more vowels, so it is Taróko with penultimate stress, and the other is Trukú always with final stress and a maximum of two vowels per word.
Bunun is also a very easy language to pronounce. It has a large population of speakers spread out over a very large area of land in the central of Taiwan -- in fact there are speakers of Bunun in both the eastern valleys (Taidong), the southern valleys (Kaohsiung-Taoyuan and Namaxia), and the western valleys (entering from Douliu and from Puli), each of which are only accessible from completely different points of entry. Despite this, all of the dialects are concentrated in the western valleys, with Isbukun being the most widespread and most commonly used dialect. It also only has 3 vowels, and no consonant clusters. It has a highly developed number of affixes that makes the language very productive grammatically and lexically. "Bunun" means man.
Atayal is harder to pronounce because of all the consonant clusters and might remind you of the Caucasian languages. If you've already learned Seediq, you'll actually recognize a lot of sound correspondences in Atayal. The Atayal word for man is "squliq", which is pronounced "s'ejiq" in Seediq. The "tayal" in the name is related to the "tagal" in Ketagalan meaning man, or place of man.
Saisiyat I would rank as pretty hard to pronounce, though the grammar is easy, and even has SVO word order like Chinese and English (strongly influenced by Hakka in this case). Saisiyat is the oldest of all the Austronesian languages and definitely worth learning. Did you know that "thank you" in Saisiyat is ma'alo (the oldest Austronesian language ~6000 years old) and is mahalo in Hawai`ian (the youngest Austronesian language ~700 years old). The only other language in Taiwan having a cognate word for "thank you" is Paiwan: masalu.
Amis is the most common of all Formosan languages having the most speakers and is not difficult to learn how to speak. The trickiest sound in Amis is the pharyngeal stop, which is the same as the Arabic /ع/ 'ayn'. Kavalan and Sakizaya are similar to Amis in this respect, except they don't have that pharyngeal. Puyuma is not difficult to pronounce either, but it has some palatal consonants, features that it shares with Paiwan. All of these languages are very similar in difficulty and structure. "Amis" means north, the name given them by the Puyuma. The Amis normally refer to themselves as Pangcah where "c" is pronounced like "ch".
Rukai at first exposure appears to be an extremely fast and tongue-twisting language. I would rate its level of difficulty as very high in terms of pronunciation. The way it is spoken reminds me of Tamil.
Hla'arua and Kanakanavu are similar to Rukai in this respect. All of these languages make use of lots of reduplication and addition of affixes. Words are very long, and spoken very fast. If you're not able to recognize the reduplicated parts in the middle of words (accent placement can also mislead this identification) it makes vocabulary much harder to identify. Once you get the hang of it, they're really fun to use.
Tsou I would consider this the hardest language of all. I once told a professor and native speaker of Tsou that I would learn the language very soon. It was 2008. He told me that he was willing to bet that I wouldn't. I'm glad I didn't bet. I didn't put much effort into it either as I was focusing on other languages. I'm pretty sure I would have to completely devote all my energy to this language.
Not only is Tsou hard, its Role/Focus system is confusing and convoluted and every sentence must begin with special particles, not to mention it has some of the strangest combination of sounds I've ever seen in any of the world's languages. It's one of the only Formosan languages to have /e, o, u/, but also /ʉ/ and they can all appear together as diphthongs! Despite all my experience with languages, hearing and differentiating strings of vowels strung together is one of the hardest things to do. Quite a few Pacific island languages do the same thing! And the consonant clusters of Tsou are not seen anywhere else on earth. The sound /f/ can appear with almost any consonant like the /v/ in Georgian does.
I would rank Tsou as the hardest to learn and Rukai coming in close second.
List of Formosan Languages and Locations
Here is the list of languages by hierarchical grouping. The codes next to each language name are ISO codes with an additional locale code appended.
tay-sqSquliq 賽考利克泰雅語 standard
- Ulay 烏來鄉
- Mstbaun 仁愛鄉發祥村
- Lmuan 大同鄉留茂安
- Pyasan 復興鄉澤仁村
- Ulay 霧峰鄉桃山村
- Tbulan 和平鄉博愛村
uun-kxKaxabu: 噶哈舞 surviving dialect location
ssfThao 邵語 location
- †Taokas 道卡斯語 short vocabulary list exists
- †Papora 拍瀑拉
fos†Siraya 西拉雅語 in revival, 17c Bible translation exists
bnn-tdTakituduh 卓群布農語 location: 南投縣仁愛鄉王豐村曲冰、法治村武界、中正村過坑
bbn-bkTakibakha 卡群布農語 location: 南投縣信義鄉潭南村、地利村
bnn-bnTakbanuaz 巒群布農語 location: 南投縣信義鄉雙龍村、人和村、望鄉，花蓮縣卓溪、玉里、瑞穗
bnn-vtTakivatan 丹群布農語 location: 南投縣信義鄉地利村，花蓮縣萬榮鄉馬遠村
bnn-plTakopulan 蘭社群布農語 scarce resources
bnn-ikIsbukun 郡群布農語 standard location: 南投縣信義鄉東埔村、羅納村，屏東縣瑪家鄉，台東縣延平、海瑞兩鄉，高雄縣桃源、三民兩鄉
couTsou 鄒語 location
xnbKanakanavu 卡那卡那富語 location
sxrHla'arua 沙啊魯哇語 location
pyu-nwPuyuma 南王卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Katratripulr) standard
pyu-kkKasavakan 建和卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Kasavakan)
pyu-uvUlivelivek 初鹿卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Ulivelivek)
pyu-kpKatripul 知本卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Katripulr) location
pyu-Tapalakau 大巴六九卑南語 scarce resources
- Amis 阿美語
ami-pcPangcah 中部阿美語 ('Amisay a Pangcah) standard
- Siwkolan 中部阿美語 (Siwkolan 'Amis)
ami-fmFarangaw-Maran 馬蘭阿美語 (Farangaw Amis)
ami-hpPalidaw 恆春阿美語 (Palidaw 'Amis)
ckvKavalan 噶瑪蘭語 location
- †Basay 巴賽語 (Ketangalan 凱達格蘭/Luilang 雷朗)
- Trobiawan 哆囉美遠 stories exist
- Qauqaut 猴猴
- Tao 達悟語 location
- Squliq 賽考利克泰雅語 : Sraral mga, maki’ qutux qu lawkah iyal mngilis na laqi’, ana naha’ si say nanu’ zmimu’ ni yaya’ niya ki yaba’ niya’ ga ini’ naha’ thzyazi zmimu’. ...
- Matuuwal 汶水泰雅語 : Pungi’ ku’ kai’ ka pinsibaq na’ nanabakis. Naki si’ baqun. ku’ capaang na’ pinsibaqan. Uwal ga, mahag cu’ pinsibaqan. kumyum cu’ babaqun. ...
- Plngawan 萬大泰雅語 : Ule’ cu ci kaca, tehuk maspapaw na abagan laga, musa’ kumut ci sasa’ing aṟat ga tugal puing totah ka yaba’ la. ...
- C'oli 宜蘭澤敖利泰雅語 (Tayal Hngiyan C'oli Kahun Girang) : Lela lela ci ga, maki utux yaya ru la’iy nerin cyu m’omah beh mayah naha. La’iy nerin haca ga aring la’iy cikuy lga m’elang calay. Maha kilux kayan ga, rima cyu syahaw sasi khoni la. ...
- S'uli 澤敖利泰雅語 (s'uli Tayan)
- Cquliq 四季泰雅語 (ke na cquliq Tayal) : Cyunga ga maki qutux yaya ro laqi nya knerin cyan mtiyaw qmayah kya, mkilux calay kayan, ro mkmux calay laqi knerin qaca, uka lungan nya mtiyaw. ...
- Tgdaya 德克達雅語 : Niqan ta Gaya kesun Lmawa Quyux ka ita Seediq cbeyo. Mesa ka kari rudan alang, "Spooda daha Gaya Lmawa Quyux dige, bale ba qmuyux ka karac denu" mesa...
- Toda 都達語 : Sediq cbiyaw sa, musa mrabang hpuyan ka macu, kingan dmuh u, asi ka daan mdka, kiya knbaka bay uqun tnsapah da, ...
- Truku 德路固語 : Seejiq sbiyaw ga pshada masu o ida mrana bi uqun. Kingal bi dmux masu o asi ka dkaan, psaan paru kama hmapuy ka dmka masu ga sthngay mhada, ...
- Taroko 太魯閣語 : Masu Truku sbiyaw o mrana bi dagun, kingal buwax masu o skaun. Snkaan o kingal liwas dagun ni mtuku bi uqun kingal ruwan sapah. ...
- Saysiyat kakhayza’an ka kinbazae’an komoSa’ hayza’ roSa’ ka hahila:, ’aehae’ he:heb ’aehae’ kas’oehaez, ’oka’ ka kinhae:wan, ’isa:a’ tatini’ Sa’, “nakhini ’oka’ a tomal kaSangayan, mae’iyaeh ’am hopay.” ...
- Pazeh: 巴宰語 Uhuni a dali ka, kasibat yamin muburiak bengebeng ki takarat. Imini bengebeng ka, hakehakezeng a saw kinasibat yamin. Kalu patakan muburiak. Mia'asay a dali ka, riak a pauhuni bengebeng. Ini riak a karum xumak a saw ka, haziah puhuni. Haiki niam a araway. Haziah karum xumak a saw, puhuni bengebeng ka parisan. ...
- Kaxabu: 噶哈舞 Ohoni a dali takaat kasibat yami buiak lalibuk. Mini a lalibuk ka nu apuwan kasibat yami, auma patakan buiak sia. Isia isia ki, iu ay musukukalidan muhuliuk. Ay paisan nasia ka, ana muhuliuk, yami a azem laula. ...
- Thao 邵語 Kahiwan izai Zintun a Thau ya lus’aniza sa Shpuut, minkuyniza sa Shpuut, mulhkiz sa Thau mutusi Qariawan tmansuun sa qmu, maqa ya kahiwan itusi Qariawan tu Thau a pruq...
- Babuza 巴布薩語
- Taokas 道卡斯語
- Siraya 西拉雅語 Tu madama murubu ta ina tu kalaliku-an tin tu lam ki viil ka vahaw ka raway ka nitupu ki ayt ka ripirip ka peykwa-an tu tamang ki ayva. Parukilat-un ta mata tin, ka matawa du ilingig-un tin ingaw ki ina. Tarakal ka vurig ta talag nein. ...
- Isbukun 郡群布農語 Tama hai maszang habas tu madas mas nauba-nanaz Alang kudip hanup, Adul hai maszang amin habas tu malavi mas cina kusia huma masuaz acipul. ...
- Takbanuaz 巒群布農語 Ma-aq tu qabas ang a, heza tu tatini sasbinaz a, unkalavan dau ka issia ta uvaz-azno-az, masdinuun nepa nastu ti sikopa ka matatamasaz tu mapa-i-iu, lusqa tu ni-i tu maqtu pinsihalun sia uvaz-azno-az ta ka kalav. ...
- Takituduh 卓群布農語 Icaan qabas tu iniqumican, haiza tatini tu sasbinaz tu uvaz binanauaz, undaun unkalavan ca kahung. ...
- Takibakha 卡群布農語 Matu qabasang nga, laning’avan mita dangi’an lopaku ki. kopin ni ludun takitudu cin Tongkusaveq qa malhahapav han ning’av, cikopa ka sinepuk, tesmumut, bunun masan’amin munhan dusa ludun ta. ...
- Takivatan 丹群布農語 Qabasang a, haiza tas-a lavian daingaz, pan nukaan dauka istaa uvaz-az nau-az, muna-u aipa nastu ti sikaupa ka matatamasaz tu ising, lusqatu uka maqtu mapinsihal i uvaz-az nau-az ta tu nukaa. ...
- Takopulan 蘭社群布農語
- Tsou 鄒語 Motuyu ’e h’oehangua to hamo. Mo i’mi ne pepe ho ohpueho ne tfuya ’o hamo, yone tfuya ho miyapo no hioyapo no yatatiskova. ’e yatatiskova eni, ’aeno asonghoi maameoi ta cou a’toana, mosoclau botngonʉ ’e cou, micu ianan’ou nopeaski ho biebimi no tehe yoni, ataveisi micu nochʉmʉ ho poa yaa ongko ’o ihe yoni ci ceoa. ...
- Kanakanavu 卡那卡那富語 Iikasu, cumacʉ’ʉriin kasu ’inia, ’esi kara kasu masakʉn ’inia? nukai, takacicinia kesoni takacicin, makananu nguain cumacʉ’ʉra kasua, kasakʉnʉʉn kara kasu? Paira ku tumatuuturu takacicin, noo ka’aniin nguain masakʉn kasua, te kasu takurusuurusu mariitarʉ. ...
- Hla'arua 沙啊魯哇語 Ahlamakiariari, maruka, alukacalai muriparana paumamaini ucani acalaiaʉ mamaini takuliacʉa inaisaka pitarupaci’i kiacicihlicuka hlahlusaisa umupangʉ mamaini ararahluua muringahlangahlaka amaisan ahlaina tammacalaiasasua hlamamana mamaini miunguakuisa paumamainia hliuringahlangahla, ina’a rumahlaʉ, angahlicuisana, ...
- Teldreka 茂林魯凱語 Cumé si rukulo tulunéni ka makakragi malalesé. Iké sessa na viene, tédra ku dopa dra si lapabɨka: “Aciku nudropata?” cumé ka lapusobaka : “Tapɨzaziuga! Ziuga kwa si kuziuga swa.” ...
- Mantauran 萬山魯凱語 (Oponoho) Ceela tamo dhaacenai, amo ikimi’iname lokelakeve, amo ka opapi’akanai, amo ka pa’idhadhe’edhe’engeka’iname ka ci’iki, amo paisikimo’o, ’olra’a amo kaho’ocomi’iname, amo vaa’imi’iname patahomana, amo ka ’idholrodholrodholrokanai ka pa’ehemae, amo vaa’imi’iname. ...
- Thakongadavane 多納魯凱語 Comai si yikolaw ka malala’osay. La’ikay ko va’iyane, lakadrowa ka dwapini. Lapababaka, “Manini paythyanita nakay sesane?” Comai ka “Ngwalra tapazazega” laya. ...
- Vedai 霧台魯凱語 (Ngudradrekay) Ku abibiilrilinga ku tadrelaneli ki kaingu, pathagilaku kicaucakuane kauriva kay ngudradreadrekadhane, ai matuasenga, ku tara bulrubulru nakwane ku kaingu. ...
- Tarumake 東魯凱語 Kota ka Drekai lro momawmata si mobolra, lroi davaceta kata kiya baseaseng twalrisiya, lro ki tralikawta miya malrisi, lro tokerekere maiya malrisi ai kadolrata lra siyolita, tarikaw kiri ka masolrivateta, lro borisisi mita, ai odalre ai ywata kadolra, lro morotokolo ta amani kwadralro ’anata sa baboy sa odriodriodri’i kilralibaka. ...
- Pasakacedas 東排灣語 (Pinayuanan a kai nua i pasakacedas) A tjaucikel na sicuayan maljaljuvaljuvaq ta culjuan a qiljas katua qadaw. Masasevalivalit tiamadju a pazarezarezar ta kadjunangan, neka nu qezemezemetj. ...
- Pasavekadan 中排灣語 (Pinayuanan a kai nua i pasavekadan) Ta sicuayan, a vali i pasa viri katua qadav rarukarivuan aravac, tiaken a tjalja pupiculan aya mamav, “Tai kacauan avancu a tjalja pupiculan a vali i pasa viri” sipaseljang ta kai sa pakisaseljang auta venali. ...
- Pasanavalj 南排灣語 (Pinayuanan a kai nua i pasanavalj) Izua kapuita, masasukaikai a vali katua qadaw tuki tima tja paravac. Manu pacun tiamadju tu izua cemalivalivat, a na kemava ta lisava. ...
- Pasaviri 北排灣語 (Pinayuanan a kai nua i pasaviri) Saviki: ka sicuayan izua ti sa tjukutjuku, qau mapuapu. Timadju, kacuaiyanga vaik a sema tjatjan, qau sidjilay i tjatjan azua inapuan; qau sa cemuvuq azua djilai tua saviki. ...
- Puyuma 南王卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Katratripulr) Asuwa driya. Ulraya a matrina a barasa. Kamawan dra ruma tu ikatratrina. makuda aw, idri na drenan i magingaging. Mupangetra na barasa. Mupatraran a bulay a babayan. ...
- Kasavakan 建和卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Kasavakan) Awac diya mu, kani henahenan, sinalem da sadu da kawi, ulra a ma’idang a varasa’, kamawan da ruma’ ma’idang, mutuayawan kani kawikawiyan. ...
- Ulivelivek 初鹿卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Ulivelivek) A awatr ziya mu, kani i zenazenan i savakan, kawikawiyan peniya, ulra a saya varasa’ kamawan za ruma’ tu ika’izang, mutu ayawan kani kawikawiyan. Ulra a saya wari, mupana a ma’izang a ngunin, marehereher ta za mupangtra’ izu na varasa’ zi mupana sasa a vulay zi arekez tu pinizazekan a vavayan. ...
- Katripul 知本卑南語 (Pinuyumayan Katripulr) Awatr ziya mu, kani zenazenan, salaw tireveng na kawi. Kanizu na kawikawi i savak ulra a ma’izang a varasa’. Kamawan za ruma’ ma’izang. mutuayawan kani kawikawiyan. kemuda zi, ini na zenan mu hemiwahiw zi, mupangtra’ na varasa’. Mupatraran a tihasar zi vulay tu pinizazekan a vavayan. ...
- Tapalakau 大巴六九卑南語 Amanan! Yiniyian da za guazaguzayian, marennay ya gu zia barasan, gamuwan na da za valy, binadai da zi bayas a da muvelias, hariya venelias demenez naruna daw, zi aigavulih yinmu mabiya, zi wala harem! (excerpt p.224 of 巴代's novel "馬鉄路")
- Amis 阿美語
- Nataoran 北部阿美語 Tiya cacay a remiad, yu macaculi cima ku sabana’ay nasaan ku libes atu cidal i, situdung saan , araw ira kiya mita’elibay a tamdaw mamelaw nu heni, micaluk tu balaybayay a tangsuy. ...
- Pangcah 中部阿美語 ('Amisay a Pangcah) Cecay a romi’ad, yo malaliyang ko lifes ato cidal to nika cima no mita ko ci’icelay saan. I tiya i, ira ko mita’elifay a tamdaw, manengneng naira ka cifodoy nira to ngayto. ...
- Siwkolan 中部阿美語 (Siwkolan 'Amis)
- Tavalong-Vataan 太巴塱—馬太鞍 Ira kina cecay, yo malaliyang cima ko calowayay na saan ko lifes ato cidal i, tatodong saan ira ko mita’elifay a tamdaw manengneng nangra, sa ciriko’ saan to kafafang.
- Farangaw-Maran 馬蘭阿美語 (Farangaw Amis) Toyanan, malaliyang ko Lifes ato Cidal to cima ko idahiay sa.Tatudung ila ko mitaelifay a tamdaw, maaraw nangra kora sicaedungay to kafang a tamdaw. ...
- Palidaw 恆春阿美語 (Palidaw 'Amis) Itiya ho, ya malaliyang to cima ko ci’icelay nasanay kuya lifes atu cidal a malalifet. Ila ko tamdaw mita’elif a manengneng nangra, sa ciriko’ sa to falangfangay. ...
- Sakizaya 薩奇萊雅語 Mahiza makesemay a ama, mitesek i balucu’ ku tudawa, mili’lid tamiyan manamuh tu katuuday, cacay a melet nu mata malalikisi tu. ...
- Kavalan 噶瑪蘭語 Damu ku yau ta kalingku bakung pateRungan ya damuna kabalan, qenikiyan yau iku ta pateRungan binus sumRuz, yau baqi, bai ku seRai tama ku kinawsa qaqa ku aiku kinnanem aimi salepawan, tama ku mepatay ti, nizu baqi, bai ku mediatip ti maikuan. ...
- Basay 巴賽語 (Trobiawan): Mutɭavay, zawis vinay, kamman-ia. "M-ati t-ak pay tsumak-tsakay t-ak pay pari." Anu naktiw knanpana-ia, zawayupu, "awi-n[a]-isu tsumak-tsakay, muta. Kakɭay-ka tsumakay!" Awi-na ta knatsawan-ia zawayupu. "Visl-i maw kaypan-su valatu-isu!" Visl-an-ia-na. Uzuay-na mu-ɭata knatsawan-ia, "q[u]ɮu-quɮuŋ". Anu utəŋ-na. "Makay-na. M-likan t-ak pay." Pavuŋ-an-ia uzuay taŋ-taŋa. "U zawayupu, taŋa-[a]n-[n]a maku."
- Tao 達悟語 No teyteyka am teymannget, arako o araw, no miwalam namen am, teykakza ko o miawawat ta masaray, tarek pa no mitagzezeng, ta teyapia citaen o kalilian, aro pa o amoamong no kalikey namen, am miawawat namen do maveveh a piawatan, ararako namen rana am, ori o ipiawawat namen rana do karaheman. No ka ori pa so kapiawawat am, to ko nginonginom so ataw, am ji ko azan o kangay ko miawawat, am ori ya ko ikateneng rana ya miawawat siciakoa ya. ...